Roman-Indo-Parthian Trade

Roman-Indo-Parthian Trade

During the last episode in our series on the
economic and trading history of the Roman Empire, we observed the fascinating interactions
between Romans, travelling down from the Red Sea, and the people of the eastern coast of
Africa. As those sailors were casting off to the south, others were preparing to ride
the monsoon winds east. These ancient routes, used for millennia by even the most ancient
civilisations, would eventually lead Rome to make contact with some of the most sophisticated
regions. Welcome to our video on Roman trade in the Northern Indian Kingdoms. Roman vessels bound for the enigmatic and
prosperous lands of India departed their Red Sea bases in the month of July, when seasonal
northerly winds blew down the gulf. From these ports, ships embarked on a 700 mile long initial
voyage to an Arabian port known as Ocelis, where they would rest and recuperate before
moving on. An old manuscript listing ports and harbours – a periplus – describes this
settlement as ‘not so much a port of trade as harbour and a watering station, the first
stopping place for those sailing on’ – a point of view Pliny also verifies. It was
located near the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb where the Red Sea met the Gulf of Aden, and
was roughly 30 miles south of Muza. The long eastern voyage was initially made
by Greek ships following the coast of Iran in the first century BC; according to the
periplus: ‘men formerly used to sail in smaller vessels, following the curves of the
bay’. However, when later Greek captains charted the shape of India’s coast, they
discovered that shorter open-ocean crossings were possible. Legends emerged that the very
first trans-ocean voyages to India were made and mapped by a sea captain named Hippalos,
and it was for him that the crucial southwest monsoon winds were named. As we once again accompany the Roman ships
on their journey, we see that they usually entered the Gulf of Aden in early August at
the dawn of the southwest monsoon winds. Some ships would follow the Arabian coast as far
as Qana, while others sailed south to the point of the Horn of Africa, and would then
set out into the open ocean from either of these points.
From here, captains and their crews trusted that the monsoon winds would carry them to
their destination. These winds were often incredibly powerful, usually blowing at around
40 miles per hour, but would commonly intensify, increasing to around 60 miles per hour in
speed, and were accompanied by high, overhanging waves. Roman captains making this trip timed
their voyages so that they would arrive in September, spending 2 months in India until
the return winds came in early November. As they approached the subcontinent, Roman merchants
had taken 70 days on their Egypt to India journey and were now roughly 3,000 miles away
from their empire. The famous Indus River was known widely as
the ‘mightiest of all rivers along the Indian Ocean. Its delta’s seven outlets expelled
a vast quantity of freshwater, which Roman pilots could recognise in seawater due to
its pale hue compared to the rest of the ocean water, and the increase in the eel population.
During the first century AD, the Indus region was ruled by a series of Indo-Parthian warlords,
who controlled the main cities in the Sindh region. One of the most well known kings of
this lesser known state was Gondophares. When they reached these lands, Roman ships
moored at a port named Barbaricon on the central mouth of the Indus, but most trade was conducted
further inland, at the royal city of Minnagar. This was the district capital of southern
Indo-Parthia, and the periplus tells us that ‘all cargoes are taken up the river to the
king at the metropolis’ – the ‘metropolis’ being Minnagar. At this stage, as the Roman merchants unloaded
their cargo, they would begin to experience what appears in hindsight to be a sophisticated
and highly organised process of bureaucratic organisation – outlined to us in the arthashastra.
Firstly, Roman cargo unloaded at Barbaricon was assessed and catalogued by a customs officer,
known as the Antapala, or the ‘Officer in Charge of the Boundaries’. This person would
examine the quality of incoming cargo and verify it by stamping his own personal seal
on it. He also collected road and ferry tolls on merchants, kept customs records and maintained
a network of spies to keep information on incoming cargo, and to keep an eye on suspicious
mercantile activity. As the merchants and their cargo arrived at
the grand gates of Minnagar, another official known as the ‘Superintendent of Tolls’
operated a customs station, marked by a distinctive banner which signified his presence. His staff
would, according to the Arthashastra, record ‘who the merchants are, where they come
from, how much merchandise they bring and where they received their first customs seal’.
Details taken at both Barbaricon and Minnagar were routinely compared to ensure taxes were
not being avoided somehow. Goods without a seal mark were likely subject to double tax
rates, while those having counterfeited a seal would have their entire cargo forfeited.
Despite the necessary taxes, natives who imported foreign goods were favoured by having their
taxes cut. Roman merchants visiting the great city at
Indo-Parthian Minnagar offloaded bulk clothing, multicultural textiles and printed cloth.
Dealers also offered products as diverse as expensive storax resin perfumes, crystal clear
glass vessels and expensive silverware for luxury dining. It is interesting to note that
the high demand for Roman glass in Minnagar and the east in general was due to its high
quality and pure nature, whereas glass ornaments produced in India and China were small, heavy
and filled with opaque impurities. Higher value deals were often conducted by
Roman traders with Imperial coinage, extremely high demand red coral or peridot gemstones
known as chrysolithon – or ‘golden stones’. Furthermore, Romans would trade incense products,
which had been obtained on the journey to India when the traders stopped off at trading
centres in Africa and Arabia. The Mediterranean variety of red coral is
worth a more detailed examination, as it is incredibly interesting in many ways. Most
types of this coral would become brittle or discolour when brought to the surface, but
the mediterranean variety did not. To both the Roman people and the populations in India,
Mediterranean red coral had practical, mythical, religious and supernatural ‘uses’ which
increased its desirability. It was, for example, used for things as broad as a decoration for
jewellery and ornaments, an adornment for Celtic swords, and as an amulet which supposedly
protected the wearer from poison. It is said that Roman authorities were amazed at how
much Indians desired this niche good. The Arthashastra even advises rulers to stockpile
this magical substance in the royal treasuries alongside such precious items as pearls, rubies
and diamonds. At the turn of the first century AD, the Indo-Parthian
kingdom’s territory extended north into the Hindu Kush, often receiving trade goods
from both sides of the Himalayan mountains, and from the Bactrian region as trading caravans
left the Central Asian Silk Road. Roman traders could therefore exchange their own goods for
a variety of exotic Indian, Afghan, Iranian, Scythian and Chinese goods at Minnagar.
Perhaps the most important export market in this bustling trade centre involved spices,
aromatics and plant-based drugs. Roman merchants received locally grown Bdellium (a fragrant
resin), Nard (an aromatic amber) and Lyceum from the Himalayas, as well as costus from
Kashmir. From the Silk Road traffic that reached the Indus region, Barbaricon offered valuable
silk from China, as well as exotic animal furs, including mink and sable. Interestingly,
it was a gift of a valuable ‘sable’ fur cloak that the young Genghis Khan gave to
Toghrul as a gift, in order to win his favour. Also received were natively produced indigo
dyes, turquoise stones from Iran and Lapis Lazuli from Afghanistan. Departing Indo-Parthia, Roman ships sailed
hundreds of miles to the south along the coast, heading for a Gujurati port known as Barygaza.
These sea routes were notoriously dangerous for the deep-hulled Roman ships, as the vessels
would routinely run aground on invisible underwater hazards, or would be pulled back and forth
by powerful currents. The port of Barygaza was ruled by a dynasty
of formerly nomadic Saka kings, who swept down onto the Indian subcontinent from their
homeland on the Asian steppe during the first century BC. It it said that in 26BC, while
Augustus was campaigning in Hispania, the Princeps received his first emissaries from
these ‘Indo-Scythian’ peoples. This embassy was sent during a period where the Sakas still
ruled most of the Indus region, but were being progressively threatened by Parthia’s eastern
expansion. Therefore, it is likely that these Saka emissaries came to Augustus seeking a
military alliance, by which they and the Romans could pincer the Parthians from both east
and west. Likely having heard of the former conflict between the two empires, the Saka
probably had the impression that Rome was going to attempt a conquest of Parthia.
This diplomatic mission was likely the product of the last true Indo-Scythian king, known
as Azes, who was also responsible for sending yet another embassy in 22BC. This time, Saka
ambassadors delivered a letter to Augustus which had been written in Greek by Azes himself.
It again asked for an alliance against the Parthians and contained other diplomatic requests.
However, at this point the Romans were concluding peace with Persia and therefore only agreed
to a ‘treaty of friendship’ between themselves and the Indo-Scythian Saka kingdom.
With this embassy came a number of exotic gifts for the Romans, such as a one-armed
Indian youth, a Himalayan Monal Pheasant, and tigers. On top of these extravagances,
a Buddhist or Jain missionary also accompanied the emissaries from India, who sought to establish
a religious site in Rome itself. While this request was denied by Augustus, the missionary
in question remained with Augustus well into 21BC. There were few good quality natural harbours
on India’s western coast and Barygaza was the closest alternative, being roughly 30
miles upstream along the Narmada River. Strong currents, shoals and reefs in the gulf and
in the river made the approach to this centre dangerous for ships, especially those of foreigners
who were not familiar with the local perils. The Saka king Nahapana, who ruled during the
late 1st or early 2nd century, realised these risks, and arranged for local rowing boats
to guide and tow Roman freighters past the sandbanks and other obstacles. This service
was likely paid for by the Roman traders, with the acquired funds going to the royal
treasury. After reaching Barygaza, ships would dock
in the river next to the city and their merchant crews would proceed to trade in the city’s
port district. One of the main commodities which attracted Roman merchants to northern
India was the diverse and plentiful range of colourful, precious gemstones produced
at inland mines. In contrast, only a few mines of this sort existed in the Roman Empire,
and these mines did not produce nearly the quality and variety of gems to satiate the
Roman consumer base’s desire for luxury. Eastern gemstones were prized for their beauty
and expense, and they quickly became an essential feature in widespread Roman fashions. Affluent
Roman women wore gems in their rings, necklaces, earrings, hair clasps, tiaras and much more.
The status garnered by possessing these precious objects was enough that, in the first century
AD, a single rare and costly jewel was enough to attract male attention and draw envy from
other women. However, not all Romans were keen on this
newfangled expensive fad. Clement of Alexandria, for example, criticised ‘foolish women’
who wore such Indian gems, while Martial called it ‘their cunning plunder, levied from us
for the sake of infatuation’. It was not only women who adorned themselves
in these stones – men increasingly wore larger amounts of rings encrusted with eastern gemstones
as an ostentatious status symbol and display of wealth. From engravings on drinking vessels
to ear pendants, the usage of these gemstones was almost endless, justifying their high
price. Further inland from Barygaza was a city that
it served called Minnagara, which was the capital city of the Saka kingdom in Gujurat.
The city’s name might sound familiar, as we did indeed just mention Minnagar in this
Indus Region. This is because the indigenous Indian civilisations called the ‘Saka’
nomads the ‘Min’, and their capitals were therefore known as ‘Minnagara’, or ‘City
of the Min’. When Minnagar on the Indus was eventually captured by the Parthians,
the new capital of Minnagara was created in Gujurat as a replacement.
The Saka kingdom centralised the revered gemstone mines under their control, and placed prohibitions
on private dealers who sought to bring stocks of crystals and gems into designated trade
cities. These measures ensured that foreign merchants were forced to buy precious stones
from Saka government agents, meaning that the revenue would flow into state treasuries.
Valuable goods, including these gemstones, were collected at a secondary royal court
at a city named Ujjain in central India. They were collected as royal tribute there by the
Sakas, and were then sent to Barygaza in order to be sold by state agents to visiting maritime
traders. The periplus explains that ‘From this place – Ujjain – came things that contributed
to the region’s prosperity and supplied trade with us.’
Goods sent the 200 miles from Ujjain to Barygaza included onyx, agate, Indian cotton garments,
and large quantities of cloth. Stocks of cotton and spices, chinese silk yarn, silk cloth,
ivory and precious stones were also taken aboard Roman ships at Barygaza, ready for
transport back to the bustling Roman markets. Also ready for transport back to the Empire
were new crop varieties, which were imported from the Saka-dominated region of India for
their own cultivation. An example of this process was a variety of black, reed-like
stalked millet which was successfully transplanted to Italy, and produced a yield which was far
greater than traditional mediterranean crops. The main export brought by the Romans to Barygaza
was Italian wine, accompanied by Laodicean wine from Asia Minor, and Arabian wine acquired
on their outbound voyage. Lucian – a Syrian satirist, suggested that ‘owing to climate,
when the Indians drink wine they quickly become drunk, and behave twice as mad as any Greek
or Roman’. This unfamiliarity with and sensitivity to wine might be inferred as a lack of much
wine produced natively in India. Other Roman exports to the Saka kingdom included
raw glass, copper, tin and lead, in addition to the aforementioned plain clothing, printed
fabrics, red coral, and peridot gemstones, which were also exported to the Suren Kingdom
of Indo-Parthia. The Saka would also encourage Roman traders
to exchange their Imperial money to the state for native Indian coins before they did business.
This was because the Roman Empire was rich in precious metals such as gold and silver,
and Roman currency was considered a reliable one throughout Eurasia. Roman Denarii were
therefore minted on a pure silver standard, and Aureii – gold coins – were issued in solid
gold. By contrast, most Indian kingdoms, though
they were prosperous in terms of exotix trade goods, had no gold coinage, and their silver
currency was often impure and contained a large portion of base metals. Saka rulers
therefore imposed favourable currency exchange rates for Roman merchants in order to draw
these precious metals from the Roman economy, and to enrich the silver reserves of their
own kingdom. During his reign, King Nahapana began to mint
new Saka coins with a superior silver content, and modern metal analysis has verified that
these coins were minted from silver melted down from Roman Denarii. Therefore, trade
with India increased the continual drain of silver from the Roman economy, one of the
negative impacts of international trade which ran parallel to the many positives. We are planning to make more videos on the
Roman economy, so make sure you are subscribed to our channel and have pressed the bell button.
We would like to express our gratitude to our Patreon supporters and channel members,
who make the creation of our videos possible. Now, you can also support us by buying our
merchandise via the link in the description. This is the Kings and Generals channel, and
we will catch you on the next one.


  • Kings and Generals

    November 6, 2019

    Roses are red, violets are blue, become our patron, so you can get the early access, too:
    I am sorry.

  • Albert Pavliukovic

    November 9, 2019

    I honestly find videos about Ancient Trade and economy more interesting than wars and battles.

  • Abner Pariah

    November 9, 2019

    Your channel is one of the few that actually informs my own work. Your comments on the red coral for example have given me insights into the material's use and value within my own community (the Khasis) in NE India … Amazing !!

    And i want to hear about SE Asia too please !!

  • xarris drag

    November 9, 2019

    The letter in Greek is from the preamble of Odyssey. Although the video is very nice and I really love your channel, great job, keep up!!

  • Sumukh Arun Raghu

    November 9, 2019

    Roman Empire and nomads in India? Motherfucker there were civilizations in India much before the west had any!!
    Nomads were much more abundantly available in the west than here in India. Get your history correct!!

  • César Lucho

    November 9, 2019

    Would be interesting to see a video about the Latin American independency process – both libertarian campaigns- and how they converged in Peru

  • Syed Ahmed

    November 9, 2019

    Please make documentary on 3rd battle of panipat.

  • Paritosh Jadhav

    November 9, 2019

    The Scythians were not known to Indians as 'Min' but as "Shak'.

  • Declan Renault

    November 9, 2019

    Do you guys plan on making a video on the Tanukhids? They were a lesser known Arab tribe.

  • studio 440hzz

    November 9, 2019

    please make a video on 3rd battle of panipat now is the time !!

  • luke shaw

    November 9, 2019

    "occlis" > you mean: aden, yemen ? (*where there's a civil/proxy war going on right now..

  • S p

    November 9, 2019

    Thank you for such a wonderful video. I learned a lot

  • Penguinatee

    November 9, 2019

    Can you do a video on a French victory? You’ve done two videos on French losses and I feel like there are a lot of very interesting victories by the French armies.

    A fan of this channel

  • ESSM

    November 9, 2019

    Nomads? The Indian civilization was older & more advanced than any European ones at that time.

  • Northern Ape

    November 9, 2019

    I've heard the Saka were the original Scythians (names sure are similar, but I'm quite aware the romans designated many peoples as 'scythian'), will you do a more in-depth video on the Saka at some point? Great work as always, fellas.

  • Sako

    November 9, 2019

    3:02 4828,032km

  • Eli Davis

    November 9, 2019

    Do you have any other information about the Buddhist missionary trying to get to Rome? Seems very interesting I would love to read more about it

  • Gopi Vignarajah

    November 9, 2019

    Yo KG, any chance you guys can cover The Battle of Panipat?

  • maxnetir timon

    November 9, 2019

    wasn't the title of this video : Roman traded with indo-parthian kingdom ????

  • Dr Raoul McLaughlin

    November 9, 2019

    Congratulations. This is a very complex subject and your team has really surpassed themselves with this video. The quality and sophistication just keep improving.

    My next book ‘Oasis Kingdoms’ has a chapter considering Persian Gulf trade. I will have to send you advance copies when it is ready for publication.

  • P Da Costa

    November 9, 2019

    Please do a series on Roman coinage!!! and the ensuing hyper inflation!!!

  • sjsyayaya Stargazer

    November 9, 2019

    When will the last episode for The Third Crusade comes out?

  • Bug

    November 9, 2019

    Wow. Imagine going back in time to see these ancient cities. Amazing.

  • Viridian

    November 9, 2019

    Learning of roman coins I got curious as I like to collect silver, though I don't have much. doing the rough math I figured how many dennarii my three troy ounce silver coins would be about 8 denarii each and 24 in total. Equivalent to one oreas or one 8 gram gold roman coin. figuring with current silver prices working minimum wage job if I exchanged for silver, could get 3 troy ounces of silver a day or nearly one oreas gold roman coin. Which despite how bad my circumstances are it really put my wealth as a poor US citizen in comparison to roman ancestors. And I suppose makes me more grateful and thankful. If I had a time machine saving up gold and silver here then going back in time, I would be pretty well off. It's always somthing I like to think about assuming I didn't get killed right off etc. how much further my everyday knowledge and wealth would have gone back in ancient times. Only having an average education or above would still have so much invaluable knowledge if taken to the ancient world and properly received. Germ theory for one. steam power. how to refract and reflect light, even basic telescopes and microscopes, cartography. Did the Romans have magnetic compasses? if not that would be real simple. simple chemical batteries. though getting the components would take a long time, more simple to make an electro magnetic coil, and generate power through mechanical motion.

  • Beri 46

    November 9, 2019

    10:25 pretty sure he didn't send him the introduction to the Odyssey :p

  • shaitarn

    November 10, 2019

    @Kings and Generals I just discovered your merch store and have splodged a pile of cash down to buy a load of Roman gear before it vanished off the virtual shelves. Thank you, you've made an Imperial fangirl very happy.

  • D. M. Collins

    November 10, 2019

    That's an interesting fact, that there was a finite amount of gold and silver the world during the time of Antiquity, and that one country's stockpiles and therefore wealth could be slowly siphoned to another country by careful control over local trade policies. I just learned over at that, technically, it was not legal to bring gold coins (and maybe silver, too?) out of the Byzantine Empire. If this had been strictly followed it would have ground trade to a halt, but it seems they were not being so silly after all–the world economy really WAS a zero sum game, it seems. And by keeping their currencies around, which were still fairly pure by 900 AD, I'm guessing this kept the "Roman" Empire rich and their neighbors, less so.

  • Rapi

    November 10, 2019

    please add additional Indonesian subtitles, because we don't fully understand English.

  • Open Sesame

    November 10, 2019

    Incredible to think of the challenges people were willing to surmount back then just to trade goods.

  • Talha Wahab

    November 10, 2019

    Make a video on the third battle of Panipat

  • Sunil Kumar

    November 10, 2019

    They are not nomards…India civilization was very advaced thousand of years ago.

  • Bhargav Radhakrishna

    November 10, 2019


  • Joella Z

    November 10, 2019

    Can you make videos about the English civil war? Pretty please?

  • Razif Ibrahim

    November 10, 2019

    Would greatly appreciate if Kings and Generals make a video about the Abbasid Caliphate explaining about the Islamic Golden Age.

  • Waqas Khan

    November 10, 2019

    The legacy, the cultural history of India is just so friggin rich & deep… i loved watching this💯
    Proud to be an Indian🇮🇳.. Jai Hind🇮🇳

  • federico pisani

    November 10, 2019

    Fantastic video!

  • Dhruva Narayan

    November 10, 2019

    4:40 it says subscribe to kings and generals in hindi😂

  • Doruk Işık

    November 10, 2019

    can you make more videos on the ottoman empire?

  • ga pavds

    November 10, 2019

    Romans a had good idea about Sri Lanka than India For example world Map of Ptolemy clearly shows Sri lanka in a big picture

  • Scott Michelson

    November 10, 2019

    What game or app do you use for the animation of all the soldiers?

  • bora111bora

    November 10, 2019

    Great video

  • pax43

    November 10, 2019

    Undevided Hindusthan!
    Oh what were the days 😥😥

  • Jeeva Jack

    November 10, 2019

    I think you may need to revisit the word nomad. Indians and particularly south indians were the first to sail in the ocean in whole world as per the evidences received. They were a better developed and civilised even before rome was born. I would advise you to see the details to Keeladi in Madurai as a proof.

  • Akernis

    November 10, 2019

    I love these trading and economics videos. They're so informative.

  • Dane Kosaka

    November 10, 2019

    3:28 What is the current state of the Indus? Is it still a source of eels and fish?


    November 10, 2019

    I know you’re British so you have a bias, but why does it say “Nomads in India” and not actually reference any nomadic people that lived in India? Is it just referring to the ancestry of Scythians and parthians, because when they began ruling parts of India, Scythian and parthians were forced to become settled and give up theirs lifestyle. This would make sense though, because you said there were no natural harbors on western coast of India which is false unless during barbarian rule of Parthian and Scythians who’s economic policies and bad administration destroyed several port cities. But there were still good natural harbors down south in Satvahana, Karnataka and Kerala.

  • Drum Ape

    November 10, 2019

    You guys are putting corporate channels like History Channel to shame.. Seriously great material!

  • Hemanth Kumar

    November 11, 2019

    It's a false information. It was east south eastern coast first discovered by Arabs between South Indian kings and Romans did trade for spice and pearls .

  • warlandpaint

    November 11, 2019

    Well saka rule ended by gupta empire

  • 剣聖の賢治

    November 11, 2019

    As you're doing videos about trade and economics right now how about a video about the venician spice trades

  • Stan Sbornak

    November 11, 2019

    One armed Indian youth? I would have held out for a three legged dog instead!

  • Rishabh Sharma

    November 11, 2019


  • swamy sriman

    November 11, 2019

    OK….what you are saying is that, Indian Jewels are Apple of ancient Rome………

  • Demetrios Sporgitas

    November 11, 2019

    1:08 has an excerpt from Homers Odyssey!
    Εγγραφείτε στους Βασιλιάδες και Στρατηγους!
    Πολλών δ'ανθρώπων ίδεν άστεα και νόον έγνω,
    πολλά δ' ο γ'εν πόντω πάθεν άλγεα όν κατά θυμόν.
    Translation from Greek (first line)
    Subscribe to Kings and Generals!
    Translation from Ancient Greek (Homers Odyssey!)
    He saw many cities and minds of many people,
    and faced many perils and short comings!
    10:33 is Homers Odyssey again!

  • Gabriel Marín

    November 11, 2019

    How did they communicate with the foreign merchants? Did they always need to bring translators with them or did they have another system?

  • Andrei

    November 11, 2019

    I enjoyed every minute of the video, it's really a nice. I hope we will see more videos like this one. Please and thank you!

  • Super Saracen

    November 12, 2019

    5:23 – 5:38 those meows 🙂

  • Taso Bouzinelos

    November 12, 2019

    Great birthday present.

  • ScoutsOut

    November 12, 2019

    The most interesting show on the tube by far.

  • bhawan kishore

    November 12, 2019

    How come those people are nomads? They had cities and performed agriculture

  • Pluralism gr

    November 12, 2019


  • Matthew M

    November 14, 2019

    10:40 A one armed Indian youth? What for?

  • Wave Rider

    November 17, 2019

    @Kings and Generals – By stylizing the font to devanagari pattern you are sending a very wrong message that all Indians speak and write in Sanskrit or its derivative – Even ancient India had many non Indo-aryan languages and non devanagari scripts in use.
    Currently the populist nationalistic government tried to introduce one language one script claiming it to be in the best interest of national integration. The move backfired with massive protests in the south of India after which the government backtracked and denied any such move.
    It would be better if you could maintain neutral standards.

  • Sunil Chhetri

    November 17, 2019

    Nice to know woman has still not changed

  • JZK Khan

    November 18, 2019

    To make it more understandable…Barbaricon is modern day "Karachi" (A port city of Pakistan) and Minnager is modern day city of "Sukkur" (Pakistan).. These cities are still hustling and Bustling and contains "some remnants" of ancient world.

  • ramendra dubey

    November 20, 2019

    Such a great thug you white people are
    really "NOMADS in india"
    you don't know diamond minning before 1763
    your greed of precious stones like coral brings you to india
    see sataract surgery in ancient india Arrogant whites
    invention of scale happen in india NOT like GREEK borrowed civilization of usa and europe
    sea pirates from india are most feared
    invention of zero is indian origin from where you bitches spreading lies about india
    apology is DUE

  • ramendra dubey

    November 20, 2019

    india was rich in complex metallurgy of metals hence mix metals coins
    rome does not know metallurgy as good as india hence only LOW heating metals like gold silver
    i ask you another question
    what type of coins do we use in this CIVILIZED age
    gold or mix metals
    your answer will be LIBERATING to the LIES you are spreading about INDIA

  • argmined

    November 20, 2019

    Beautifully narrated (as usual). I only wanted to suggest a few corrections to the Sanskrit pronunciations – since unlike the Romance and Semitic languages, Sanskrit is a phonetic language – so the mispronunciation makes the word appear meaningless.
    More importantly, you have put so much effort – and don't need to leave chances for nitpicking.

    The underlying issue are the older transliterated texts which largely ignore differences between the Sanskrit vowels. Both a's in nagara – are actually pronounced how one would pronounce u in up/umpire/ugly. antapala should better be written as antapāla where ā is pronounced the way one would pronounce a in bar/cart/chart (other a’s are like u in up). When pronounced correctly, antapāla literally means a frontier-guard (see ). Similarly, a better transliteration would have been arthashāstra – which literally means a treatise(shāstra) on business-matters (artha). Another similar issue is the i (pit) and ee (deep) sounds of Sanskrit being transliterated as i in English and so on. Sanskrit grammarians are long dead – but thankfully there are online dictionaries that make cross-checking easy. Remember a correct pronunciation in Sanskrit is the equivalent of a correct spelling.

  • Chandler Cormier

    November 24, 2019

    These trade videos are some of yalls most fascinating vids.

  • Mandeep Singh

    November 25, 2019

    Wonderful !

  • Topias H

    November 25, 2019

    Observation: 90% of Indian commenters on this video are being obnoxious/purposefully misunderstanding what's being said in this video. Lol stop being so insecure and hostile

  • Savan Patel

    November 25, 2019

    Indians were no nomads during that period. The subcontinent was way ahead in terms of economic and spiritual development.

    Could you please update the title? It is misleading

  • Nar Pashtun

    November 26, 2019

    I love Your Videos all of them

  • Lucas

    November 27, 2019

    4:42 the seal of indo parthian kingdom's Antapala(Customs Officer) Hindi to English translation is "Subscribe to Kings and Generals"🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣

  • mandip yadav

    November 29, 2019

    I think you guys need to do more research. Probably how nomad Greek traded with India would be more accurate tittle.

  • The Good Fight

    November 30, 2019

    This video was awesome! Thank you so much!

  • Elliott Zio

    November 30, 2019

    Love this channel, amazing videos. Thank you.

  • Bak Khan

    December 2, 2019


    india didnt exist back than
    partgians are not from the region nowadays known as indians

  • Thamarai Kannan

    December 2, 2019

    Pandyan dynasty is established in Europe.tamil king's dynasty. dont Fool us asshole.we known the history of tamils..

  • Hattori Hanzo

    December 2, 2019

    The script in Hellenic in the video, is the begining from Homers Odyssey by the way! As always a fascinating one KGS!

  • Sling Shot

    December 3, 2019

    Do a proper research before spreading lies!!!

  • Vivek Singh

    December 3, 2019

    The use of the word Nomad is perhaps inaccurate

  • Aziz Ahmadi

    December 3, 2019

    Not very true and accurate as the trade at tge time was controlled and managed by the Arabs and Persians through the caravans on land and was called the silk road until the 15th century when the European discovered the route around the cape if good hope or Africa and by the help of the Arab and they lost their control on trade and went on decline to date

  • Sumit

    December 3, 2019

    I don't understand from where they get their outdated history. In the video – In India this part ruled by indo- parthians that part ruled by Saka king!! I highly doubt your sources. In which of your sources there is mention of these rulers?

  • jayant kumar

    December 4, 2019

    Somebody show this vdo to islamist and white supremacists
    They say india was backward before they come

  • Prateek Bhardwaj

    December 6, 2019

    Should be more like how the nomads in Rome traded with the Indian Empire. Your videos relating India are biased and inaccurate! Please try gaining more resources and local material, instead of just putting up adulterated Greek & Roman writings! Can’t really believe that the richest empire of the time was inhabited by nomads and the aggressive and destructive armies of the West were civilised 🤫😝

  • History Time

    December 12, 2019

    This is epic

  • BlackPawnMartyr chess

    December 13, 2019

    thanks really enjoyed this episode. nice change of pace.

  • Ari Y

    December 14, 2019

    What nomads bro? I dont see any. You guys dont know words for a history channel.

  • Christian Haimet

    December 16, 2019

    These trade videos are not in any playlist either I believe. Would be too bad for any of your videos to not be readily available/promoted!

  • James Banner

    December 22, 2019

    I LOVE these kinds of videos. Trade in the ancient world is so interesting. I hope there are many more in the future.

  • HALO studioz

    December 30, 2019

    Nowhere in indian records it is said that romans sailed through indian ocean nor the greeks ,these were possibly eurocentric fantasies made first by romans .
    It was always the sea sailing caste from the western coast of india who engaged in trade with rome ,egypt and middle east .they were the only people who were skilled and capable of crossing the indian ocean as their ships the dhow where made for this and not the rugged roman or greek vessels ,these are the same dhows which the arabs would also buy from indians and use for their trade .

    The sea route to red sea and reaching the egypt was found by indian sailors long before even the egyptians even know there was another ocean after red sea not to say about greeks or even the romans ,this western castes where then replaced by southern tamil and malabar traders who dominated the roman ,chinese trade .

  • Alec Blunden

    January 6, 2020

    Surely, its the Gulf of A-den, not Ar-den.

  • Danny Heywood

    January 14, 2020

    Emissary: ''I have bought you a gift! It's a small Indian Boy……We cut his arm off for you.''
    Roman: ''Ooooh cool, I don't have one of those yet! Thanks!''

  • Preying Mantis

    January 14, 2020

    Please create a playlist on Youtube with these roman trade videos. I don't want to miss any of them.

  • Kratos

    January 18, 2020

    Woman on ancient ship?!?

  • vittorio bresciani

    January 20, 2020

    black peppercorn was the most seek good by the roman from India

  • Gotthatgoin4me

    January 20, 2020

    Who taught you what Roman women looked like???

  • Ronan Okram

    January 22, 2020

    Damn i am really loving this sort of videos.

  • bakwas master

    January 23, 2020

    instead india you should say pakistan it is not india


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