How Cybercriminals Steal Money

How Cybercriminals Steal Money

>>DASWANI: My name is Neil Daswani, I’m a
security engineer here at Google. And today I’m going to be talking about how cyber criminal
steal money. I’m going to be talking specifically about how cyber criminals use various types
of web application vulnerabilities to steal money. And I’m going to start with simple
examples and then I’ll go to more complicated examples. In the course of my talk, I’m may
refer to many resources, presentations, reports, books, certification, courses, etcetera. Links
to those are all going to be available at my site at And at the end
of the talk, I’ll be also be giving out couple free copies of security book that I published
but you’ll have to answer some trivia questions to get those at the end of the talk. Before
I go ahead and get started, the one additional thing that I wanted to mention is that, given
that this is a security talk, if you have any Google specific questions, I’m going to
ask you to hold them until the end of the talk, until we stop taping and then you can
ask those. But if you have general questions about the presentation or some of the techniques,
then I’d be happy to take those either at the middle of–in the middle of the talk or
at the end of the talk before or before we stop video taping. So, let me go ahead and
started. One of the major shifts that occurred over the past three or four years is that
the profile of the attackers has changed. So, up until about three or four years ago,
when people used to write worms and viruses, they would typically want to–just make names
for themselves. They would release their worms out there, it would cause lots of traffics
and servers would come down, some pact would get deployed and the game would be over. But
the big shift that’s occurred over the past three or four years is that as more and more
commerce has started taking place on the internet and as more businesses have started making
more money from that commerce activity, the bad guys want to get their share. And so,
their end goal is money, actual money. And so, in many of the attacks that I’ll talk
about, in the examples that I’ll present, I’ll tell you how these bad guys are working
to get at money. Now, the bad guys may have a set of intermediate goals that may help
them get to that money. And so, some of the intermediate goals, for instance, are Data
Theft, they’ll steal identity information, they’ll steal credit card information, they
may decide to conduct extortion. So they will launch a denial-of-service attack against
a website at say, 8:30 AM, to the point that it’ll take down all that bank servers. They
will send in a ransom note to the bank. They will say, “Please pay us X thousands of dollars
or we’re going to shut down your servers. By the way, if you check your web server logs
at 8:30, you’ll notice that all your web servers were down so I’m not kidding.” And–so extortion’s
another goal. Another goal to make money is to distribute Malware. Once the bad guys distribute
Malware, they can then do all kinds of things with the compromised machines, assemble them
into botnets and/or do what they would please with those botnets. So, there’s a number of
intermediate goals. To give you a concrete example of such a organized crime networks–so
I mentioned that the attacker profile has shifted from amateurs to professionals that
want to make money and in many cases those professionals are very organized. It is their
full-time job to attack sites. The bad guys, in some cases, will hire other people as mules
to transfer money from one place to the other. So, it’s an extensive organized network. We’re
not fighting against amateurs anymore. One example of such an organized crime network
is the Russian Business Network. If you’ve heard of botnets like storm which have compromised
anywhere from a million to five million machines, depending upon who you want to believe, the
real numbers probably closer to a million, million and a half. They’re responsible for
these types of botnets. Storm for instance is a pair-to-pair based botnets that can be
used for denial of service, key-logging, pretty much whatever–whatever one would like. The
bad guys will rent out the machines on those botnets. They’ll say, “Hey, I have a botnet.
I have these many machines. I’ll rent them to you for X cents per day and you give me
a binary, I’ll put whatever binary you give me on those machines and farm them out.” Another
thing that the Russian Business Network is alleged for is a piece of software called
Malware alarm. So Malware alarm is this piece of software which will pop up a dialogue box
on your-on your PC and it will say, “We think your computer is infected by Malware. Please
click here to disinfect.” Of course, if you click here to disinfect, it will infect your
computer as opposed to disinfect it. And so, the Russian Business Network is a thoroughly
organized group. For those of you that are interested in learning more about the Russian
Business Network, come up to me after the talk, I can tell you some fun stories. So,
the goals of cyber criminals have changed over the years. To give you a little bit of
data about various Pseudo-Goals and intermediate goals that the bad guys have, this is a graph
that I pulled out from a web hacking incidents database report that was done by Breach Security,
they basically looked at a whole bunch of organizations over the course of 2007 and
what types of attacks were reported for all of 2007. And so, you can see that what the
bad guys were mainly trying to do is steal sense of information like credit card numbers,
identity information. Once they steal that information, they can do various things with
it. They could decide to use that sense of information for their own games. For instance,
if they have stolen credit card numbers, they can then burn those credit card numbers onto
blank magnet stripes of their own and hand those out to mules who they then tell to go
to ATMs and try to do cash advances and what not or use the cards at various points of
sale. So that’s one thing they can do with stealing sensitive information. The other
thing that they could decide to do is to just sell the information on the black market.
So, the bad guys have a whole bunch of IRC Channels as well as other ways of communicating
with each other. And there’s an underground economy, there’s a market. So on the underground
market, a credit card number might be worth say, $10 per credit card number and they can
get bought and sold in bulk. So stealing sensitive information is one thing that the bad guys
do. The next highest category of intermediate goals for the bad guys [INDISTINCT] on this
slide is Defacement. So that simply–somebody changes what’s on the front page of the website
to get their own, say, political messages across. Now, I should mention this particular–this
particular report, queried a lot of government agencies. And so, because the number of government
agencies queried in this report tends to be a little bit on the high side, we said Defacement
is probably a little bit on the high side with regards to other databases that I’ve
seen describing incidents. The next highest is planting Malware. So once the bad guys,
say, break into a website, they will put some JavaScript and/or active X object tags on
the pages, such that when good users visit those pages, visit these legitimate sites,
they have a binary downloaded to the machine and they get infected without even knowing
it. So, that’s the next biggest category. You can imagine that as we–if we were to
look at more commercial websites as supposed to government website, the amount of planting
Malware would increase and the amount of Defacement would decrease simply because if a website
is highly trafficked and there’s lot of users going there, the bad guy simply want to take
advantage of that traffic to deploy their Malware and then decide what to do with users
after that point. There’s one final point I want to make about this graph and this graph
is based on incidents as supposed to vulnerabilities. So for those of you that are familiar with
web application vulnerabilities, you maybe aware that Cross-site Scripting happens to
be a major problem on the internet. A lot of vulnerabilities reported are typically
Cross-site Scripting vulnerabilities. And I’ll chat a little bit about some types of
Cross-Site types of attacks later in talk, but the thing to keep in mind is that those
are vulnerabilities as supposed to the actual incidents. This graph shows incidents. So,
what the attackers are actually trying versus what say, security researchers are trying.
So, this is–this slide summarizes some things about the intermediate goals on the part of
the attacker. So, I’ve given you some high level information about trends in the space.
I’ll talk a little bit more about trends, but what I’m going to do is start with a simple
concrete attack, show you how it works and then I’m going to show some more complicated
attacks as well. So I’m going to talk about SQL Injections fist. Actually, let me just
get a quick show of hands, how many of you are familiar with SQL Injection? Okay, good.
More than half of the room which is great. So I’m gong to go through this example relatively
quickly. Basic idea is that a good user might access website in a following way: They have
a web browser, they need to authenticate themselves to a web server, they typically supply a username
and password, the web server then uses that username and password to allow the user to
log in. Of course, before allowing the user to log in, they need to figure out if this
user is indeed authentic. So, the web sever might make a query to a database. The database
command that gets constructed, make it constructed based on the user input. So, the user supply
the username, the web server needs to select the corresponding password from the database
and see what corresponding password is for the username that was entered. Of course,
the bad guy is not going to enter your regular run-of-the-mill username, the bad guy is instead
going to enter a username like quote, semi-colon, drop table user, semi-colon, hyphen, hyphen
and enters something for the password, it really doesn’t matter what. But the idea is
that after this input is entered and is substituted into the query, the quote will close of the
string literal, the semi-colon will close of the first database command, the rest of
the input will make up a second database command, these hyphens will comment out the apostrophe
that the web application put in. And in old databases, these actually used to execute
just fine and would end up deleting all the information about all the users in the database
in one shot. So this would be an example of a denial-of-service attack that occurs based
on SQL Injection. Now, these types of attacks have become so prevalent and so popular and
they’re so well-known there’s even cute cartoons about them. I’ll go ahead and let you read
the cartoon. So, even high schools are vulnerable to this and if you guys have ever seen the
movie war games in which Ferris or Matthew Broderick had to open up the–and get the
password for the computer for the high school’s database, he doesn’t even need do that anymore.
He just needs to have his name be quote, Robert–Robert, quote, drop table students, etcetera. So,
there’s all kinds of other innovative SQL Injection attacks that can be done. So I’ll
just give you one example. For instance, when you board an airplane, right? And I’ve been
to a couple of security conferences where some of these attacks have been demoed. So
when you go to the gate and you give them your boarding pass, what do–what do they
do with your boarding pass these days? The boarding pass is typically just a bar code
and they scan that bar code. Now that bar code is getting translated into a set of numbers
and letters and most likely getting fed to a SQL database. So there’s no reason that
you couldn’t enter a couple, you know, come up with a bar code of your own, come up with
a boarding pass of your own, put in a quote, semi-colon, whatever. Put in all these characters
and construct a SQL Injected command to upgrade yourself into first class or do worse. So
SQL Injection just isn’t relevant to the web, it’s relevant to many other types of applications,
pretty much anything that uses the database on the backend. So you might think, “Oh, this
should be pretty easy,” right? The problem occurred because there was a quote and a semi-colon;
I’ll actually just filter out those characters, right? That seems like the easy way to deal
with this problem. Unfortunately, that’s not enough. So let me go ahead and give you an
example in which putting in a, or filtering out quote and semi-colons will not solve your
problem. This is an example of a–imagine there’s a website that allows you to buy pizzas
on-line and that web application, may have a page which allows you to view your order
history so that you could see all the pizzas that you’ve ordered in the past month or so.
And in this screen, you might imagine that there’s a pull down record, select the month
so that I could view all my pizzas for that month, and the html form corresponding to
this form might look as follows: It has basically a select block in which there’s a couple of
different options, each of the options have a month and a corresponding value from one
to twelve, and when the user hits submit, that value would get transmitted to the server
and will become, say, part of the SQL command that will retrieve all of the pizzas that
were ordered in that month. Now, of course, the bad guys are not going to enter a number
from one to twelve, what the bad guys going to do is enter something else. The bad guys
going to enter something like say, zero or one equals one. So at the top, this is what
a normal SQL Query for getting the order history might look like: It might get the pizza, the
toppings, the quantities and the order day from the order’s table for the particular
user that’s logged in, and the order month is the order month that comes from the form.
On the other hand, if the bad guy types in zero or one equals one for the input, what’s
going to happen is they–the order month equals zero will evaluate to nothing but the order
one equals one will evaluate to true for every single row that the database evaluates this
form. And so what will get returned is all of the pizzas that were ordered by anybody.
And so what the attacker’s going to get is a screen that will looks like this, where
it will contain the pizzas, the toppings, etcetera, for all of the pizzas that were
ever ordered from that website. Now, for pizzas, this might be such a big deal, right? But
imagine if this was a medical database? Well, now you have everybody’s medical records.
So, that’s pretty darn bad. Now, at the same time, this is a talk about, how do bad guys
steal money? So, stealing information about pizzas may not be that interesting, but stealing
information about money might be much more serious. So you could imagine that the attacker
could instead type in a query such as or type an input such as zero and one equals zero,
union, select cardholder number, expiration month, expiration year from credit cards.
So what this does, the zero and one equals zero will basically evaluate to nothing, right?
One never equals zero, none of the order months should be equaled to zero. So that part of
the SQL statement gives me nothing. On the other hand what happens is this, the results–the
nothing results get unioned with a whole bunch of results that come from the credit cards
table. Now, the key thing here is that the columns, card holder number, expiration month,
expiration year where chosen such that they exactly match the data types of the columns
in the preceding order history tables and that’s why the SQL Query will work. Once,
the bad guy is able to do this, what the bad guy will get is a result page that looks like
this: There is a pizza order table that contains people’s names, credit card numbers, etcetera,
and this is how the bad guy got all the credit card numbers. So, this is pretty darn bad.
Note that in that query, there were no quotes. There were no semi-colons. There were no metacharacters,
yet the attack worked. And so, how do you solve this kind of problem? Well, you need
to use an approach based on whitelisting as opposed to blacklisting. When you try to filter
out certain characters like quotes and semi-colons, it typically doesn’t work because you might
forget about some characters; every database has its own metacharacters. Who knows, the
next version of the database might introduce some new metacharacters and so it becomes
a very hard game to fight. On top of that, you might have some users that might enter
one metadata like O-quote-Brien. Why shouldn’t I allow O’Brien to have a quote in his name?
I want the user to have a more personal connection with my website. Why? Because of whatever
technology I used to build the website should the person not be able to use that quote.
And so, the right way to deal with these problems is to use an approach based on whitelisting.
Anytime they’re taking input from user–from users on a website, you want to constrain
and specify, what is the exact set of safe valid values that should be allowed? And so
you could imagine that if I’m accepting some kind of alpha numeric string, I might use
a regular expression like this, or if I’m accepting a month, I might use a regular expression
like zero dash one to zero dash nine. You could of course write much, much better regular
expression but the idea here is not to, you know, show you the regular expression in particular,
but to–to just basically make the point that you should use regular expression to constrain
the correct set of input to what you would expect it to be and basically give the user
an error, some kind of error which hasn’t reveal a lot of information to the user if
the input doesn’t match what you might expect. Once you’ve come up with a set of regular
expressions that properly specify the set of safe inputs, you can–in addition to checking
for them in your application, you could implement them in what’s called the web application
firewall. So for those of you that might be familiar with Apache, you can write a whole
bunch of modules or use a whole bunch of apache modules to extend the functionality of the
web server. One of the modules that you can use is a module called Mod_security and it
will let you specify a whole bunch of rules for all the arguments in your web application.
So, that is a tool that I encourage you take of–take advantage of. Finally, I mentioned
that we want to allow usernames like O-quote-Brien and so the way that you do that properly is
you take advantage of escaping functions that your database provides you with. So, the name
of the escaping function will differ depending upon what database you’re using. But in this
particular example, you just call escape with the user input and in some databases like
my SQL, it will take the single quote, turn into a double quote and the double quote,
when the database receives that in a SQL statement will basically mean that the database interpret
this double quote as a piece of data and not as a piece of control and that will help deal
with the issue. Now, there’s a number of other things that you can do as well to prevent
SQL Injection. One thing that I would strongly recommend is taking advantage of prepared
statements and bind variables. So in this approach, what you do is for all the queries
that your application might want to do, you can come up with a query template and prepare
a statement with that query template. So in this particular case, we’ve taken the pizza
order query and we have provided that information and what we’ve done is we put in question
marks for the places in the query where I expect data and only data to be filed in.
And once the query template is specified, you can then have separate statements that
will fill in these place holders. Place holder number one with the user ID, place holder
number two with the parameter corresponding to the month. And the idea here is that, when
the database driver executes this, when the database looks at this, it will always interpret
this information as data. It will not allow the structure of the query to change. And
so, you could imagine that–what you could also do is create just one file in your application
or keep all of your queries in separate places such that in your regular code, you should
never really have SQL. And that will help you from a [INDISTINCT] standpoint to make
sure that you don’t have these types of SQL Injection errors. So, I’d highly encourage
the use of prepared statements and bind variables to deal with SQL Injection. So, I talked a
little bit about MOD_security. MOD_security is a type of web application firewall. And
so the idea here is that, without a WAF, when the user makes connection to your web server,
the connection’s pretty much directly to the web server. There is nothing that can really
intermediate the user’s request. If you do you use a WAF, that’s either linked into the
web server or that sitting in front the web server, the idea is that when the user input
comes in, it can look for–it can basically run all the user input through various regular
expressions and check for invalid types of input. So that’s how MOD_Security works. Except
MOD_Security is actually a link in the web server as opposed to a separate box. There
are also web application firewalls that sit in front of a box but, you know, the last
thing you need is another security appliance to manage. And so, while that is–that is
one option, there are others as well that can base on software. To give you an example–another
example for how to use web application firewalls. To prevent some types of attacks like SQL
Injection, you can imagine that there’s going to be whole bunch of rules and there’s a whole
bunch public rules available. So especially if you’re using apache or you’re using a public,
you know, that type of a web site, what you can do is take advantage of rules that are
available and this particular rule is optimized, it’s a whole bunch of regular expressions
compiled into one, but you can get the idea that it looks for various parameters in the
http request and looks for certain scary strings like table, like, objects, like the word,
password, etcetera. And so the web application firewall can be used to provide you defense-in-depth.
So the idea is that you should absolutely try your–write your code as perfectly as
possible so that it doesn’t have vulnerabilities, but you just never know. And so, the web application
firewall can provide defense-in-depth. If there’s some class of attack that you didn’t
have in mind when you built your application, the web app firewall might be able to help
protect you. So, what else can you do to mitigate SQL Injection? Well, one thing you can do
is you can limit privileges if your database doesn’t need to change data, then there’s
no reason that the user account that the web server is logged in the database with, or
the web app server should belong to the database with, there’s no reason it should have those
right privileges. But as you can imagine, you know, just reading that it can also be
pretty bad. You can harden your database server; harden your host until it last. You know,
some databases like Microsoft SQL server shift by default with a whole bunch of functionality
turned on, so that I could write SQL commands that could be used to initiate, outgun network
connection or E-mails and you definitely want to shut all of that functionality off. There
is a lot more to learn about SQL Injection. For instance, there’s attacks like second
order SQL Injection where the bad guy takes advantage of data that’s already been sanitized
and is in the database and you–does a command to re-inject that into a query and use it
to their advantage. Another type of attack is a blind SQL Injection. You notice in some
of the attacks that I demoed, the bad guy needs to know a little something about the
structure of the database. And so blind SQL Injection can be–is a technique that can
be used to reverse engineer information about the scheme of the database. If you’re interested
more in that, I suggest Chapter 8 in my book or the web, there’s a lot of good information
out there. So, that is attack type number one, SQL Injection, that’s one of the, you
know, simpler attacks. Can I answer any questions about SQL Injection before I move on to the
second type of attack that I’m going to talk about, Cross-Site Request Forgery. No question
about SQL Injection. Okay. I’m going to move on to talk about Cross-Site Request Forgery.
So, this is another attack which can be leveraged by the bad guys to steal dough. And how is
the bad guy going to do that? Well, I’m going to show you by way of example. Let’s assume
that we have two sites. One site called which is a legitimate site that has an on-line
banking application, and let’s assume that a user logs in to that on-line banking application
and is authenticated with a cookie. So the idea is that the user goes to the front page
of, provides a username and password. Once the user is logged in with that username
and password, the browser–user’s browser is given a cookie and on subsequent http request,
the user’s browser supplies that cookie to the bank’s web server, that’s what–to authenticates
the user. So let’s assume that’s how works. Now, let’s say that the user is logged
in to and the user happens to get lured to some evil site called The
idea here is that, a user might receive an E-mail, there might be a link in it, they
might end up cooking on it. There’s many, many different ways to lure the bad guy to, but let’s say that, there is this site called and has some malicious
web pages. Let’s look at how can effectively steal money right out of the user’s
bank account. So, how is this attack going to work? Is Alice, our good guy or good girl
in this case, is going to go to and request the log-in form. The log-in form is
going to have a form for a username and password. The user, Alice, is going to fill out that
form and provide with the username and password. The username and password gets
transmitted to, let’s say that particular script is called auth. The username happens
to be victim, the password happens to be whatever and checks that information in their
back-end database, it checks out and so sends Alice a cookie, “Here’s you session
ID, you can give me back this identifier to authenticate yourself.” Now, you can imagine
that in a normal world, in a good world, Alice might then, once she’s logged in to the bank’s
web server, she might click on a link saying “I want to view my balance”. So what happens
when Alice clicks on view balance link? Well, a view balance script might get called and
of course, because this cookie came from and Alice is making another request to
The browser provides the cookie. And so says, “Oh, okay. I know this
is Alice, she just logged in. Let me go ahead and give her bank balance because she’s an
authentic user.” So it says, “Your balance is $25,000.” Now, of course, let’s look at
what happens when Alice gets lured to site in the middle of this interaction. So,
as before, Alice makes a connection to, she request the log-in script, she authenticates
herself with the username and password, she’s given a cookie. Now, what’s going to happen
at this point is, let’s say that while she was logged in to in one window, she
opens up another window and is reading her E-mail and happens to click on some link,
or comes up on some drive-by download page or whatever and is served a page by
Well, what can do is serve her a webpage that has some html on it. So, let’s
say that, Alice request evil.html, and on evil.html is the following tag. And I’ve simplified
this from a technical standpoint just to make the clarity of the explanation a little bit
better, but you can use JavaScript or whatever else. But the idea is that there’s this image
source tag that has a URL that says “go make your to request to”. And so it specifically
says, “Hey, go ahead and make this request to this pay bill script at to go
ahead and get this “image” and by the way, supply these parameters. The parameters are
the attackers address and the amount, in this case $10,000.” And so, what does Alice’s trusty
browser do? Well, Alice’s browser wants to do a good job for Alice and so it makes a
request to and it calls the pay bill script as was requested. It passes the parameter
as requested, and oh, by the way, since the browser was already logged-in to,
it sends the cookie to So, gets this request saying–from
Alice saying that, she should pay a bill to 123 evil script in the amount of $10,000 and
looks up the cookie. The cookie is completely legitimate. So, what does do?
goes ahead and issues the payment, right? Now, of course, if you’re the attacker, you
want to do a bunch of things to make sure that Alice didn’t see that so you open up–the
way you do this is you send back this kind of script in a zero size I-frame so that Alice
didn’t really see anything. The other thing is that, from the attacker standpoint, this
would generate lots of forensic information, right? The evil guy doesn’t want to go ahead
and give exactly his address to the bank because at some point Alice is going to complain,
is going to go back to the bank say, “I didn’t withdraw this $10,000.” So this is where hiring
mules comes in. So if you’ve ever seen these websites where–what the bad guys do is they’ll
put up a website that looks like it’s legitimate company. The legitimate company would have
a bunch of job descriptions on it. One of the job descriptions will say, “Oh, we’re
looking for an assistant or work from home job at some point.” And that will have a whole
bunch of qualifications listed for this person like, you know, they should know how to type
at a certain speed, they should know how to use the internet. And one of the interesting
job qualifications is that they should have access to an internet bank account or a mail
address. And so what the bad guy does is hire a bunch of mules and puts the mules address
here and it gets the $10,000 sent to the mule and then the mule is instructed as part of
their job to, you know, keep 10% of it and then transfer the rest of it to the attacker’s
bank account. So that’s how the bad guys turn Cross-Site Request Forgery attacks, web based
Cross-Site Request Forgery vulnerabilities into ways to steal money. Do that make sense?
Any questions? Okay. So that’s how to use Cross-Site Request Forgery to steal money.
How many of you have heard attack called–heard of an attack called Drive-By-Farming? Okay.
Very few of you. Okay. How many of you–when you got your home router changed your default
username and password? Why isn’t everybody? So the issue here is that because of this
Cross-Site Request Forgery vulnerability, it’s possible for the attackers to completely
takeover all of the user’s internet browsing simply because of the fact that they didn’t
change that password. So most–most home routers will have a web based interface which lets
you administer the router and what the bad guys do is they know that approximately 50%
of home users use a broadband router and they don’t change the default username and then
password. So what the bad guy can do is take advantage of Cross-Site Request Forgery to
mount an attack against the home router or what they do is they change the user’s DNS
settings, right? So basically, I include this image store and other type of JavaScript that
will make a request to the router at or whatever predictable addresses. The attacker
can try a whole bunch of them and it will basically send a message to the user’s router
saying, “Please change the user’s DNS settings to use the attackers DNS server.” Once that’s
done, even if the user types in it will get results to the attackers IP address
and the attacker can put up a website that looks exactly the same. Once the user enters
their log-in credentials, he just fetches those out. And so this slide has a whole bunch
of details about how–how you actually do this but you could imagine that there’s other
applications here as well. So Pharming is an application where I change the user’s DNS
settings but there’s other applications. I couldn’t, for instance, build a port scanner
using this kind of technique where if I’m trying to–if I’m trying to get at the people
behind a corporate–corporate internet sites, I know they may have say, a whole bunch of
10.addresses. So what I do is that I have whole bunch of this tags, I have a whole bunch
of 10. or 192.168 internal IP addresses and I–I can basically, you know, using [INDISTINCT]
like on error, figure out exactly when my successful request did get sent and did not
get sent. And so, there’s a lot of applications here for Cross-Site Request Forgery. Drive-By-Pharming
is one. It’s some good work that was done by Sid [INDISTINCT], a PhD student who interned
with me last year. Mark Jacobson and [INDISTINCT] were also on this paper. So I’ve told you
about Cross-Site Request Forgery, I’ve told you how you can use it to steal a bank accounts,
how you can use it to take over the user’s DNS, you can use it to–to do corporate espionage,
how do you stop it? Well, there is a variety of techniques, right? Earlier I said that
the request looks completely authentic to and it does, but for those of you
that are familiar with HTTP, you know that there is a referrer header that gets sent
along with the browser. And so one question that you may have in your mind is that kind
of look at what the referrer is. You can imagine that when I try to view balance or pay bill
and the user is only on the bank’s website, the referrer will also be the bank’s website.
But if its site that’s sending back evil.html and making a request to,
the referrer should in fact the evil.orgs, evil.html file. So it’s a good idea, the problem
is that lots of user’s may use HTTP proxies for whatever reason. They may use anonymizing
proxy. You might want to browse the web remotely. And so referrers don’t always necessarily
get sent. So if your looking at using referrers to be a completely fail safe mechanism to
deal with Cross-Site Request Forgery, you’re not going to get very far. On the other hand,
there’s some good work that’s come out of Professor John [INDISTINCT] research group
at Stanford, and I believe there’s similar research reports elsewhere where–what you
could do is look at all of your aggregate traffic on a site and look at what percentage
of that traffic doesn’t have the referrer fields, is that normal, is that not? For those
request that I am getting, am I getting lots of request to the pay bills script without,
you know, without a referrer field? Well that’s a bad sign. And by the way if I do see some
pages that I don’t expect, well that might be a sign that there is some kind of Cross-Site
Request Forgery going on. So inspecting Referrer Headers wouldn’t give you a fail safe defense,
but it may give you some indication. It may allow you to detect that the problem is happening
even if it doesn’t allow you to prevent it. You can attempt to use a Web Application Firewall
but the request pretty much look legitimate to so it’s going to look legitimate
to the Web Application Firewall. Now, at the same time I mentioned that you could look
at distributions of traffic and the Web Application Firewall may help you do that except for the
fact that most firewalls–Web Application Firewall, for instance MOD_Security doesn’t
support that level of functionality. So that’s another potential defense. Even better defenses
are validation via a user provided secret. So the idea here is that whenever the users
going to do some sensitive operation like paying a bill, what you want them to do is
you might want them to enter their password again, right? The reason that the Cross-Site
Request Forgery attack worked was because the bad guy was able to make a right request
and didn’t have to know any information about the user because of the fact that the cookie
automatically got sent and automatically authenticated user. On the other hand, if XMLHttp request
to pay the bill, you require that the user provides that password again, then of course
the hope is that the attacker does not know the user’s password and will not be able to
specify that secret in order to do the transaction. And of course if the attacker does have the
user’s password, they can do a whole bunch of other bad things anyhow. So, asking the
user to type in their password or some other user provided secret, again, a PIN or whatever,
is a good way to mitigate Cross-Site Request Forgery attacks. A fourth way that you can
deal with Cross-Site Request Forgery is validation via an Action Token. So what you can do is
take some secret that should only be known to the sever, combine it together with things
like the user session ID and use a cryptographic primitive like a HMac to generate some new
piece of data, some new signature that get sent out with every page that you serve the
user and basically put that in all forms. And so the idea is that the bad guy won’t
know what Action Token to provide when doing the sensitive operation. And I’ve kind of
gloss through the details of how to do that here, but if you’re interested in all the
details, [INDISTINCT] and my co-author wrote up a great section on how to do this in the
Cross-site–cross domain attacks section of my book, Chapter 10 and I’ll be giving out
some free copies. And for those of you at Google, we actually have that book available
internally if you’re interested in a copy. So that’s how you can prevent and detect Cross-Site
Request Forgery attacks. Can I take any questions about Cross-Site Request Forgery before I
move on to Cross-Site Script Inclusion? No. Clear. Good. So, the next attack that I’m
going to talk about is Cross Site Script Inclusion. It’s similar to Cross-Site Scripting except
it takes advantage of the fact that lots of web applications are now using Web 2.0, Ajax
type technology. And so, I’ll tell you a little bit about some of the downsides and some of
the new attacks that can happen if you’re not careful about how you use Ajax objects
like XMLHttpRequest and or–if you use a framework, some kind of framework to automate the development
of your Web 2.0 application, like Xajax or Sajax or whatnot. You should have an idea
of what the limitations of that framework are. So let me go ahead and talk about Cross-Site
Script Inclusion. As you all know, when your building a web application, you can have script
tags and you may put the JavaScript directly in the HTML file, but you may also decide
to factor out your JavaScript into a separate file. And then you can use a script tag followed
by a source attribute to include that pack. And so this is called static script inclusion
and it allows you to share a code, right? Between the various pages on your website
and it’ll also allows you to source JavaScript from other websites. So there’s a lot of advantages
that come with that but it could be–it could be dangerous. For instance, if you decide
to source in a third party JavaScript file, then they could do lots of bad things; show
a page without you even knowing it. So that’s Static Script Inclusion. There is also a Dynamic
Script Inclusion. And maybe what I think I should do is just go into–to an example,
but you can imagine that when I make a request to an HTTP server, that HTTP sever, in addition
to sending back HTML, can also send back JavaScript. And it can send back different JavaScript
depending upon what’s in the request. And that’s an example of Dynamic Script Inclusion.
So let me–let me make things a bit more concrete and then show you what can go wrong. So, in
an example where we have Static Script Inclusion, you can have a Web page and I might be showing
the users their mail and I might like their page with their mail to have a cool menu on
it. And so I can go ahead and source in a menu .JsJavaScript file which will go ahead
and do all the right things and render that menu. And so Static Script Inclusion itself
is not a bad thing so long as you trust Now, there’s also Dynamic Script Inclusion.
So you can imagine I might be building a banking website and I want the user interface to have
very low latency and I don’t want to re-render the whole page to say “just show the user
of their balance”. And so I might build a page like this where there’s some JavaScript
on view balance, so what it can do is make a request to the server to get the user’s
balance and then call a RenderData function to render that in place without having to
reload the entire Web page. So in this script, the first line will go ahead and create a
new XMLHttpRequest object, I’m assuming everyone here is familiar with XHR. And what you can
do then is you can set a handler so that when this XMLHttpRequest is complete, this handler
will get called. What this particular handler does is it just takes the response that it
gets from the server, the server will basically give back a JavaScript function call and it’ll
go ahead and call evil on it. So it will go ahead and execute that function call. Once
the state change handler is set, this code then makes a–opens up HTTP POST Request to
this particular URL. It says, “Go to, call this get DataScript,” it gets back the
data in JSON format which is a popular way of giving back attribute value pairs. And
it says that, “Oh, when you’re finished with–with getting this DataBank back from,
you should go ahead and call a RenderData.” Or it’s basically telling the server that
give me a RenderData call as your–as your result and then it will go ahead and send
the HTTP request. And of course, also in this code, will probably be the code of the function
for RenderData which will find the appropriate dome object in the Web page in which to stick
the balance once it arrives back from the sever. So, this is what things look like in
this particular application and–and in a normal world we wouldn’t have problems, but
of course we live in the real world so we’re going to have problems. So let me–let me
demonstrate exactly what happens with regards to how this code works and then show you what
can go wrong. So Alice may decide to login into, she goes and gets the regular
login script, she gets back a cookie, she might click view balance and when she clicks
view balance, gives back view balance HTML and when Alice’s browser gets that code
back, it’s starts evaluating the JavaScript in it. So it’s go ahead and makes the post
request that was in the JavaScript. It passes the appropriate call back parameter and so gets the request, gets the cookie, “This is Alice, I’m going to ahead
and send back her bank balance information,” except that is a cool Web 2.0 application
now, and so it sends back this data in the form of a JavaScript call back with some JSON
that has attribute value pair for the account number and an attribute value pair for the
balance. And that data goes back to the–to the browser, the browser says, “Oh, okay.
I’m just going to go ahead and [INDISTINCT] this. I’m going to call a RenderData with
these JSON parameters to render the data on the Web page.” And so things should work just
fine unless we have an attacker on the loop. What the attackers going to do is, similar
to what happened with the Cross-Site Request Forgery attack, what’s going to happen here
is the user might get lured to while logged in to the website and the
evil.html that the attackers going to send back is going to be a little bit different
in this case. In this case, as in the previous case, the or has studied’s website, and so its sends back some JavaScript which takes advantage of this
RenderData function. So knows that there is a RenderData function being used
and the evil site provides its own implementation of a RenederData function. So this RenederData
function, instead of rending the data on any kind of Web page, will call another JavaScript
function which will send the arguments pass to this function off to Of course,
because this page comes from the domain, it can go ahead and send data back
to that domain as per the same origin policy. So that’s one part of the script. The other
part of script that is an evil [INDISTINCT] that got sent back, is basically a tag which
says, “Go ahead and call that get DataScript on the website,” and of course call
back the RenderData function. So the user’s browser gets evil.html and wants to faithfully
render evil.html for the user and makes the post request to the website, passes the appropriate
parameter of course because the user is logged into, provides the session ID in
the cookie, successfully authenticates Alice, sends back the RenderData
script and the JSON parameters containing the account number and the balance just as
before, except now what happens is that because this is being rendered on evil.html, it goes
ahead and calls the RenderData function in evil.html which basically says, “Send this
parameters off to” And so the attacker gets the account number and gets the balance.
Bad news. And then the attacker can do whatever the attacker would like with this information.
So this is yet another example of cross-domain security problem and how the attacker can,
in this case, steal the account number as well as find out what’s in the balance and
then sell that information or do whatever we would like. So what happened in Cross-Site
Script Inclusion is the [INDISTINCT] website request a Dynamic JavaScript, the browser
authentication cookies would be sent because the user’s already logged in into,
the JSON fragment returned by the server is accessible and it’s going to be sent back
to the malicious site, and the bad guy simply redefine the call back method to make this
happen. So that’s Cross-Site Script Inclusion. So at this point I hope I’ve scared everyone
a little bit with all the technical details of how–how things can go wrong. Let me talk
about a couple Trends. So I’m gong to site a couple research reports, one is by Symatec
and Symatec’s latest internet security [INDISTINCT] report, reported that 58 of all vulnerabilities
of in 2000–in second half of 2007 affected Web applications. So the bad guys are shifting
more and more to attacking Web applications as opposed to, say, attacking open [INDISTINCT]
vulnerabilities on your PC. One other interesting thing that was mentioned in this Symentec
report is that the bad guys can go ahead and look at large popular sites that have vulnerabilities
and it sometimes makes sense for then to put a lot of effort exploiting those vulnerabilities
on large traffic sites, instead of going for smaller sites. So that–that’s–that’s a particular
Trend that was highlighted on the Symentec report. Now, about two weeks ago, there were
also attacks, but what the bad guys did is they took advantage of kind of the opposite;
they attacked a whole bunch of small websites. So what they did is they used various search
engines to look for IIS servers, Microsoft’s internet information servers, and looked for
SQL Injection Vulnerabilities and applications that would use that database. So basically,
they would get back a whole bunch of search results and they’d know exactly what servers
to exploit. So this can also go the other way around where the bad guys can attack lots
of small sites very quickly. So on one hand, large sites are–this is an issue for all
large sites, on the other hand, it’s an issue small sites. It’s basically an issue for every
site. Another statistic is that [INDISTINCT] noticed that 80% of site hosting malware are
legitimate sites that have been hacked. So many of the small websites that I just mentioned
would all render content to their users that came from the database. So what the bad guys
did, is they used technique like SQL Injection to inject malicious JavaScript and or ActiveX
type objects that once user would–end up on those web pages, they would get infected
by malware. So that’s speaks to this statistics. So users are not safe necessarily browsing
legitimate sites. We basically need a lot more [INDISTINCT] technology on this front;
we need websites to get better about their server sites security. And statistics from
Symatec and [INDISTINCT] are good, I’m sometimes skeptical about statistics that come from
market research firms, but even [INDISTINCT] says that today over 70% of attacks are against
the company’s website or Web application o their site. So things are–things could be
a heck a lot better. And giving this knowledge and how to prevent these kinds of attacks,
we can all help make things a lot better. To show you one more graph, let me show you
another graph that came from this web hacking incidents report. It basically shows that
with regards to actual incidents, 12% of the attacks are due to cross-site scripting, 20%
are due to SQL Injection, etcetera. So, actually I should mention one more thing about this
pie chart, there’s an organization called the OWASP, Open Web Application Security Project,
and they basically, every year publish a top 10 web vulnerabilities. So what Breach Security
did in this case, was they took those top 10 web vulnerabilities, part of them against
the incidents and found that number one–the number one web vulnerability, Cross-site scripting,
actually was only 12% of the attacks, whereas SQL Injection, while it was number two, actually
accounted for more incidents. So there’s more cross-site scripting vulnerabilities but there’s
more SQL Injection incidents. So let’s see, I’m going to summarize by telling you where
you can learn more and I’ll tell you about some courses certification programs, etcetera.
This list is not comprehensive by any means. You–you can learn more about security pretty
much at every university. A lot of the–the good universities, in addition to having things
like cryptography courses, are now introducing systems security courses. So, CS155 at Stanford,
W4187 at Columbia, CS161 at Berkeley, there is much more comprehensive list at Avi–at
Avi Rubin’s website. So you can check that out. There’s also, for those of you that have
full time jobs and can’t necessarily afford to take things over the course of semester,
there’s an advance security certification program at Stanford that can be taken either
online or on campus over the course of the week, where there’s three core courses, three
electives and one of the interesting about it is, in addition to just providing lectures
about all these attacks and telling you how to abstractly prevent them, what–what we
do, and I have to in the interest of full disclaimer, mention that I helped Stanford
with this program. Basically, what we do is we put people in labs and we have them actually
construct the attacks under some test websites that we constructed, and then write the actual
defenses. So that is useful and we do that on campus. Of course you can do that in a
lab where you’re kind of isolated for the real–from the real internet and you make
sure that you don’t end up impacting real sites. We also took all of that–all the software
that were running in the lab and we put them on [INDISTINCT] images. So even if you need
to take the courses online, you can go ahead and, you know, benefit from those labs even
if you take the courses online. This is the URL. So let’s see, I’ll–so there’s a lot
more information, this is the URL to go to. Actually, this should be,
the next course is coming up in July. So keep an eye on for it. There’s other security certification
programs available. There’s a certification called the CISSP, the Certified Information
System Security Professional. It’s much more broad, its focuses on various aspects of security
beyond just security, it focuses on physical security, telecom security, etcetera. There’s
also a new certification that’s come up from a group called SANS called the Secure Programming
Assessments. It’s basically–both of these are actually multiple choice tasks. So you
learn a lot by preparing for them. There’s also lots of books. There’s my book, Foundation
of Security: What Every Programmer Needs To Know. I’ll give out some copies. I’ll do some
trivia question in just a second. There also a lot of other good books. I’d recommend Ross
Anderson’s Security Engineering; it’s actually available for free online. Just enter this
into Google or your favorite search engine. I’ll also highly recommend Gary McGraw’s Building
Secure Software book and Viega/Messier’s Secure Programming Cookbook books. Let’s see, there’s
also a website that we helped make available called the If you need
to teach security course, you can just download materials off of this site and, you know,
there’s slides, there’s programming assignments. So if you’re responsible for teaching security
to other folks, this is a resource that you could take away for free. There’s also free
slides corresponding to every chapter in my book at And let see,
so I think that concludes all the information that I wanted to tell you. The key point here
is that software security is every engineer’s problem. Is not as if there’s some group of
magical security engineers that are going to take care of securing your application
after its get developed. It really needs to be every engineer–every engineer’s job and
I mentioned various set of recourses in addition to my website, you can also
go to My contact information is there, so I hope that you guys have learned
at least one thing new. I’d be happy to take any questions at this point. Okay. Thanks
for your time.


  • Ritz Dezign

    February 27, 2009

    thnkz larry for the main points, saved me about 40mins.

  • skylined101

    March 2, 2009

    my name is nail daswani blablablablamoneyblablablablasqlblabla

  • jeugeut

    April 20, 2009

    very bad

  • Evan Johnson

    November 19, 2009

    o_O now i hate my credit cards even more

  • Sai

    November 21, 2009

    This talk is misnamed. It should have been titled something like "Basic web vulnerabilities – SQL injection, XSRF, XSS, etc." Same ol' same ol'.

    I was expecting something about electronic money laundering and was therefore disappointed.

  • funkwurm

    January 1, 2010

    22 minutes in and I'm sorry, but this is not a very good talk.

    If you know a uservalue inserted into a query should contain an integer, convert it to an integer. No regex needed. Then he talks about converting a single quote to a double quote, when really it's 2 single quotes.

    Now he's talking about doing everything in mod_security. This only works for in-house apps. If you distribute the app you won't know how the server's configured so you'll have to do security inside the app.

  • Drake McGregor

    February 3, 2010

    @VFEntertainment123 wtf they dont have the worlds fastest servers

  • dariush ghavami

    February 28, 2010



  • Jade Nephrite

    May 1, 2010

    May all cyber criminals be caught and punished with certainty to serve as deterrents. Penalties should be so severe that no one would ever be tempted by the possibilty of any gains.

  • robnox

    May 2, 2010

    Where can I find the Bobby Tables comic online? I thought that was pretty hilarious

  • Neil rulz

    July 10, 2010

    I always wonder if Bill gates had ever fathomed such crimes taking place before windows became a major commodity.

  • coleifer

    January 10, 2011

    who the fuck is this guy?

  • coldironhands1

    February 15, 2011

    I'm work yngeny network solution for satalite installation wireless network, and email solution for busines shost server shell account is not bad becuase RUSSIAN BUSINESS NETWORK this lecture is bullshit

  • Mrfuturex

    February 21, 2011

    yea whatever the larrymccowen guy said. 😉

  • President Doge

    March 22, 2011


  • BertJohn

    March 25, 2011

    Sherpa Derp this guy makes it sound all bad lol.

  • Tony Silva

    April 19, 2011

    So fucking long….!

  • Robert Williamson

    June 16, 2011

    This really helped me understand csrf, so thank you. For preventing csrf, could you (Using the banking example), require a CAPCHA for each transaction?

  • phisherPhisher

    June 27, 2011

    why 25 thumbs down? this contribution is enlightening.

  • 耕平石村

    August 7, 2011


  • omarfaw

    August 11, 2011

    Long live Russian Criminals and Russian Business Network ! thats what you get for fucking up soviet economy, boris jewsky yeltstin.

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    August 13, 2011


  • EurekaRecycler

    September 5, 2011

    Great, Thanks for exposing the insecurity in the seemingly secure internet.

  • vigra83

    September 15, 2011

    Facebook Password Hack /watch?v=xnUquVTh_4Y

  • Lasitha Abeydeera

    September 20, 2011

    @vigra83 dude its removed 🙁 did you watch it can u tell me what it said? :/

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    September 21, 2011

    thank you x x

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    October 7, 2011

    I increase cyber money endlessly and should be able to put. Because I wrote on the Internet in all over the whole world, and entered and printed, and spread and opened and expanded extended expansion. I can do in freedom in the whole world.

  • Lehabey

    October 26, 2011

    Should spell '=' instead of 'IS' in "select passwd…" sql. 'IS' is used for testing for null values.
    Time: 09:54

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    January 11, 2012

    I move the world with infinite abilities power and eternal force. I earn a big sum and make money endlessly.

  • milev stargate

    April 16, 2012

    lost many softwares do the injection just that eror in source code but the E currency lundering that s what s up

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    April 19, 2012

    It's sad to know the government puts more money into persuing marijuana users as "criminals" than they do cyber-criminals stealing people's life savings.

  • maldarkangel

    May 3, 2012

    the bad guys the bad guys the bag guys the bad guys. the good guys the good guys the good guys good guys.

  • D0N

    May 23, 2012

    30 people got they're money stolen.. in the internet..

  • Tarantulus666

    September 21, 2012

    This guy works for google security? this shit is weaksauce.

  • arow gobe

    October 24, 2012

    Good Video Most who steal is Russians and Chinese

  • eddiekoski

    November 9, 2012

    please site your source

  • Awaytake

    November 17, 2012

    Couldn't agree more.

  • Abdalla Alkhalaf

    December 30, 2012

    You are stupid>> I am sorry but it clearly showing you are just chatting….How the fuck would you know the name of table columns…. if you know the table columns and the table names this means you don't need to use SQL injection/// I did not no that Google employ people like you

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    u mad brah?

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    May 28, 2013

    Ah, so Google are the good guys, right?

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    Epic Talk. Brilliant presentation. Great info. Thanks Neil.

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  • Nadeeja94

    July 3, 2013

    Why the dislikes?? This was an awesome talk

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    July 8, 2013

    Where can i find this damn black market.

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  • King of Youtube

    July 16, 2013

    And that is how they steal money.

  • kateckiz3

    July 21, 2013

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    July 26, 2013

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  • brkrab

    July 26, 2013

    nice clip

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    July 28, 2013

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    July 29, 2013

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    August 2, 2013

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    August 5, 2013

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    August 10, 2013

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  • Guggle Shmugl

    August 18, 2013

    very good

  • joshuad31

    August 20, 2013

    Wow how dated this video is. Why do any of these things when you can just steal bitcoin?

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    August 31, 2013

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    September 22, 2013

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  • SuperAndrews13

    September 28, 2013

    Hi, have you heard of DotComMoneyPile yet? Simply copy 'n' paste to the browser to have a look at their website address. There you can find a valuable free video presentation by a recognized web-based and FOX-news-featured millionaire revealing how to earn easy money over the internet. It made it easier for Aaron to earn money from the comfort of home and benefit from financial flexibility very fast. Hopefully it works for you too.

  • Rainbow Hyphen

    November 1, 2013

    — Oracle
    SELECT table_name FROM user_tables; — Now you know the table names.
    SELECT column_name FROM user_tab_columns WHERE table_name = 'credit_cards'; — Now you know the column names.
    SELECT cc_num, cc_exp_month, cc_exp_year, cc_sec_code FROM credit_cards; — Now you know everything.

    Only have one string field to get data out through? Use TO_CHAR() and concatenate.
    Similar methods exist for other databases.

    Or, you know, pay off one of their interns. Security through obscurity is madness.

  • Rainbow Hyphen

    November 1, 2013

    Regular expressions are a very messy way of guarding against SQL injections. Use an API that binds variables. This will also make your code cleaner.

    # Python example
    >>> name = "'; DROP TABLE Users; –"
    >>> cur.execute('SELECT * FROM Users WHERE Name = ?', name)
    >>> cur.fetchall()

    Does exactly what you want. "Sorry, there are no users named '; DROP TABLE Users–."

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    November 5, 2013

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  • ibrahim anik

    November 5, 2013


  • SharkMarketer

    December 10, 2013

    good hacxing tip it worjks well for steal the monye

  • dhammika ruwan

    December 30, 2013

    Okay, you have a very smart way to get cash money. But, this discovery made an average guy some extra money. Go Google Certor Cash Code and look for yourself.

  • maurice udoh

    January 1, 2014

    Good delivery from a good experience. Thanks for educating the public. I want to be like you. Please expect my mails in your e-mail box. You are good. Thanks

  • Dim Dob

    January 24, 2014

    Conclusion for not to be robbed: dont click on everything blindly and dont use Java :))))


    February 28, 2014

    organized stalking is a fast growing crime in different parts of India , cyber crime is the modus operandi of these criminals.Google " Organized Stalking " to know more about this crime.

  • MrStevestr

    March 13, 2014

    There has been much development in this area since this video was uploaded, be aware of this fact!

  • zdenda

    August 23, 2014

    Misleading title. It is just an introduction to basic SQLi, XSRF, XSSI.

    You will "learn" that Neil wrote a book and likes to click with his tongue.

  • Andreas Christodoulou

    April 25, 2015

    Ohhh…. 1:05 …By the way don't forget to contribute  at the end of this introdution by supporting  his work ….otherwise there be no coffee for you……miserable. !!!

  • Jadkins

    June 19, 2015

    Was anybody else thinking, "Shut the fuck up and hack something for realz!"

  • Mike Ferrell

    December 9, 2015

    Helpful to a newb – thanks.

  • Mike Hunt

    February 12, 2016

    Thanks for teaching me how to steal money!!!!

  • Maurice Kalevra

    July 23, 2016

    is this even still relevant , i mean its almost 10 years old.._?

  • William A.

    August 20, 2016

    graph at 5:33 1 – stealing sensitive information 42%, fair enough… 2 – defacement 33%, dude, just why? it's time to stop! where are your parents? I'm gonna call child protective services! 3 – planting maware 15%, pretty normal 4 – unknown 8% WTF????? UNKNOWN???? WHAT?

  • imtootired32 studios

    October 10, 2016

    really good information, i learned a lot, thank you!

  • Wolf WarMaster

    November 15, 2016

    Nah, he is a script kiddie

  • LaZeR SGDZ

    December 24, 2016

    Thanks alot i learned how to hack money

  • Abraham Rollings

    December 12, 2017




  • SanDap Seepakdy

    March 30, 2018

    I would like to have account FX4

  • Spencer Nestor

    July 27, 2018

    It seems reasonable if viruses existed, YouTubewould be a good place to get one. … While it's unlikely you'll ever get a YouTube virus from watching videos, real dangers exist on the site. Cyber criminals trick us into clicking links so they can install malicious software on our devices.Oct 25, 2017


  • Raymond

    September 2, 2018

    just to save your time, basically it's SQL injection, XSS and CSRF

  • misha sawangwan

    September 4, 2018

    h0w 2b 1337 ??????//?

  • Influence Ehimen

    October 7, 2018

    Its no news that hackers can hack bank accounts and initiate hacked transfers safely. That was my story courtsey of Expeditetools ,com I got $66,000 from the first transfer and now I have made over a hundred thousand dollars.

  • Alex Nezhynsky

    November 20, 2018

    Funny how things didn't change much since 2008.


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